Aluminium occurs naturally in some source waters. It is removed from drinking water by conventional water treatment (coagulation and filtration). The standard is 200µg Al/l.
Ammonium salts are naturally present in trace amounts in most waters. Their presence might indicate contamination of sanitary significance and they interfere with the operation of the disinfection process. The guide value is 0.5mg NH4/l.
Antimony is rarely found in drinking water. Trace amounts can be derived from brass tap fittings and solders. The standard is 5µg Sb/l. Arsenic occurs naturally in only a few sources of groundwater. Specific water treatment is required to remove it. The standard is 10µg As/l.
Benzene is present in petrol. It is not found in drinking water, but it can migrate through underground plastic water pipes if petrol is spilt in the vicinity. Some bottled waters and soft drinks which include sodium benzoate as an ingredient have been reported as containing benzene. The standard is 1µg/l.
Benzo(a)pyrene is one of several compounds known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Their source in drinking water is as a result of the deterioration of coal tar which was used to line water pi pes up until the early 1970s. The standard is 0.01µg/l.
Boron in surface water sources comes from industrial discharges or from detergents in treated sewage effluents. It can be present in partially desalinated seawater when this is used to supplement drinking water supplies. Concentrations found in drinking waters are generally very low. The standard is 1mg B/l.
Bromate can be formed during disinfection of drinking water as a result of a reaction between naturally occurring bromide and strong oxidants (usually ozone). It may be generated in the manufacture of sodium hypochlorite disinfectant. It can also arise from using an inappropriate grade of sodium hypochlorite for water treatment. Exceptionally, groundwater beneath an industrial site can become contaminated with bromate. The standard is 10µg BrO3/l.
Cadmium is rarely detected in drinking water and trace amounts are usually due to the dissolution of impurities from plumbing fittings. The standard is 5µg Cd/l.
Chloramine is a substance formed by a reaction between chlorine and ammonia, used as a disinfectant in distribution systems because of its long-lasting properties compared to chlorine.
Chloride is a component of common salt. It may occur in water naturally, but it may also be present due to local use of de-icing salt or saline intrusion. The guide value is 250mg Cl/l.
Chlorine residual is the small amount of chlorine or chloramines present in drinking water to maintain its quality as it passes through the water company’s network of pipes and household plumbing.
Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming bacterium that is present in the gut of warm-blooded animals. The spores can survive disinfection. The presence of spores in drinking water in the absence of E.coli and Enterococci indicates historic or remote faecal contamination that requires investigation. The standard is 0 per 100ml.
Chromium in drinking water comes from the coatings on some taps and plumbing fittings. The standard is 50µg Cr/l.
Coliform bacteria are widely distributed in the environment often as a result of human or animal activity, but some grow on plant matter. Their presence in a water supply indicates a need to investigate the integrity of the water supply system. The standard is 0 per 100ml.
Colony counts are general techniques for detecting a wide range of bacteria, the types and numbers being dependent on the conditions of the test. These counts, if done regularly, can help to inform water management, but they have no direct health significance. The standard is ‘no abnormal change’.
Colour occurs naturally in upland water sources and is caused by natural organics which are characteristic of these catchments. Colour can be the cause of elevated disinfection by-products where chlorine is used for disinfection. The standard is 20mg/l on the Pt/Co scale.
Conductivity is a non-specific measure of the amount of natural dissolved inorganic substances in source waters. The guide value is 2,500µS/cm.
Copper in drinking water comes mostly from copper pipes and fittings in households. In general, water sources are not aggressive towards copper, but problems very occasionally occur in new installations. These ‘blue water’ events can be avoided by good plumbing practices. The standard is 2mg Cu/l.
Cyanide is not normally present in drinking water, but could be present in surface water as a result of a specific industrial contamination incident. The standard is 50µg CN/l.
1,2-Dicholoroethane is a solvent that may be found in groundwater in the vicinity of industrial sites. Where necessary it can be removed by special water treatment. The standard is 3µg/l.
Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Enterococci are bacteria present in the gut of warm-blooded animals. They should not be present in drinking water and, if found, immediate action is required to identify and remove any source of faecal contamination that is found. The standard is 0 per 100ml.
Fluoride occurs naturally in many water sources, especially groundwater. It cannot be removed by conventional water treatment, so high levels must be reduced by blending with another low fluoride water source. The standard is 1.5mg F/l.
Hydrogen ion (pH) gives an indication of the degree of acidity of the water. A pH of 7 is neutral; values below 7 are acidic and values above 7 are alkaline. A low pH water may result in pipe corrosion. This is corrected by adding an alkali during water treatment. The guide value is a range between 6.5 and 9.5.
Iron is present naturally in many water sources. However, the most common source of iron in drinking water is corrosion of iron water mains. The standard is 200µg Fe/l.
Lead very occasionally occurs naturally in raw waters, but the usual reason for its presence in drinking water is lead plumbing in older properties. The permanent remedy is for householders to remove lead pipes and fittings. The standard is 10µg Pb/l.
Mercury is not normally found in sources of drinking water in the UK. The standard is 1µg Hg/l.
Nickel occurs naturally in some groundwater and, where necessary, special treatment can be installed to remove it. Another source of nickel in drinking water is the coatings on modern taps and other plumbing fittings. The standard is 20µg Ni/l.
Nitrate occurs naturally in all source waters although higher concentrations tend to occur where fertilisers are used on the land. Nitrate can be removed by ion exchange water treatment or through blending with other low nitrate sources. The standard is 50mg NO3/l.
Nitrite may occur where ammonia is present in the source and chlorine is used for disinfection. Careful operation of the disinfection process ensures that levels of nitrite are below the standards of 0.1mg NO2/l in water leaving water treatment works and 0.5mg NO2/l at consumers’ taps.
Odour and taste can arise as a consequence of natural substances in surface waters, particularly between late spring through to early autumn. The standard is described as acceptable to consumers and no abnormal change in odour or taste.
Pesticides – organochlorine compounds (aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide) are no longer used in the UK because they are persistent in the environment. They are very unlikely to be found in drinking water. The standard for each compound is 0.03µg/l.
Pesticides – other than organochlorine compounds are a diverse and large group of organic compounds used as weed killers, insecticides and fungicides. Many water sources contain traces of one or more pesticide s as a result of both agricultural uses mainly on crops and non-agricultural uses, mainly for weed control on highways and in gardens. The standard is 0.1µg/l for each individual substance and 0.5µg/l for the total of all pesticides.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) is a group name for several substances present in petroleum-based products such as coal tar. The standard is 0.1µg/l for the sum of all the substances (see Benzo(a)pyrene listed above for more information).
Selenium is an essential element and a necessary dietary component. Amounts in drinking water are usually well below the standard of 10µg Se/l.
Sodium is a component of common salt (sodium chloride). It is present in seawater and brackish groundwater. Some water treatment chemicals contain sodium. Concentrations in drinking water are extremely low, but some water softeners can add significant amounts where they are installed in homes or factories. The standard is 200mg Na/l.
Sulphate occurs naturally in all waters and cannot be removed by treatment. The guide value is 250mg SO4/l.
Tetrachloroethane and Trichloroethene are solvents that may occur in groundwater in the vicinity of industrial sites. Where necessary they are removed by specialist treatment. The standard is 10µg/l for the sum of both substances.
Trihalomethanes are formed during disinfection of water by a reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring organic substances. Their production is minimised by good operational practice. The standard is 100µg/l.
Vinyl chloride may be present in plastic pipes as a residual of the manufacturing process of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) water pipes. Its presence in drinking water is controlled by product specification. The standard is 0.5µg/l.
Tetrachloromethane is a solvent that may occur in groundwater in the vicinity of industrial sites. Where necessary it is removed by specialist water treatment. The standard is 3µg/l. Total Indicative Dose is a measure of the effective dose of radiation the body will receive from consumption of the water. It is calculated only when screening values for gross alpha or gross beta (radiation) are exceeded. The guide value is 0.10mSv/year.
Total Organic Carbon represents the total amount of organic matter present in water. The guide value is ‘no abnormal change’. Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. Discharges to the environment are strictly controlled and there is a national programme of monitoring surface waters. The guide value for drinking water sources is 100Bq/l.
Turbidity measurement is an important non-specific water quality control parameter at water treatment works because it can be monitored continuously on line and alarms set to alert operators to deterioration in raw water quality or the need to optimise water treatment. The standard at treatment works is 1NTU. Turbidity can also arise at consumers’ taps following disturbance of sediment within water mains; the standard at consumers’ taps is 4NTU.
Page reviewed: 15 August 2016
Page modified: 15 August 2016